The European imperialist designs and pressures of the late nineteenth century provoked African political and diplomatic responses and eventually military resistance. During and after the Berlin Conference various European countries sent out agents to sign so-called treaties of protection with the leaders of African societies, states, kingdoms, decentralized societies, and empires. The differential interpretation of these treaties by the contending forces often led to conflict between both parties and eventually to military encounters. For Europeans, these treaties meant that Africans had signed away their sovereignties to European powers; but for Africans, the treaties were merely diplomatic and commercial friendship treaties. After discovering that they had in effect been defrauded and that the European powers now wanted to impose and exercise political authority in their lands, African rulers organized militarily to resist the seizure of their lands and the imposition of colonial domination.
THE WORLD BANK AND IMF POLICIES. The loans given out by the World Bank and IMF (the International Monetary Fund) have contributed to the poverty problem in Africa. Such loans come with strict conditions, which usually required governments to adjust some of their economic decisions. For instance, the requirement to reduce total government spending has affected major social sectors such as education, health and infrastructure, which are drivers of economic development.
Obviously, "Tragedy," "Triumph," and "Challenge" are not stable and mutually exclusive categories but represent shifting signposts on a continuum of collective accomplishments. Remarkably, the 1994 genocide in Rwanda coincided with the first nonracial elections in South Africa. For all its horror, it has shifted the study of conflicts in Africa, until then too often attributed to "ethnic" motivations, to their real causes that generally stem from larger economic, political, and environmental issues, including tensions due to disputed access to scarce land resources. Some donors now insist on preventive "conflict education," and truth commissions are established to attempt to both document and heal traumas, while indigenous institutions for peace preservation are also more readily called upon to repair the damaged social fabric.
Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson conclusively show that it is man-made political and economic institutions that underlie economic success (or the lack of it). Korea, to take just one of their fascinating examples, is a remarkably homogeneous nation, yet the people of North Korea are among the poorest on earth while their brothers and sisters in South Korea are among the richest. The south forged a society that created incentives, rewarded innovation, and allowed everyone to participate in economic opportunities. The economic success thus spurred was sustained because the government became accountable and responsive to citizens and the great mass of people. Sadly, the people of the north have endured decades of famine, political repression, and very different economic institutions—with no end in sight. The differences between the Koreas is due to the politics that created these completely different institutional trajectories.
The HSRC has estimated poverty rates for each municipality.
But other factors played an important role in the process. The political impetus derived from the impact of inter-European power struggles and competition for preeminence. Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Portugal, and Spain were competing for power within European power politics. One way to demonstrate national preeminence was through the acquisition of territories around the world, including Africa. The social factor was the third major element. As a result of industrialization, major social problems grew in Europe: unemployment, poverty, homelessness, social displacement from rural areas, and so on. These social problems developed partly because not all people could be absorbed by the new capitalist industries. One way to resolve this problem was to acquire colonies and export this "surplus population." This led to the establishment of settler-colonies in Algeria, Tunisia, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, Mozambique, and central African areas like Zimbabwe and Zambia. Eventually the overriding economic factors led to the colonization of other parts of Africa.
The major city with the lowest poverty rate is Cape Town (30%).
However, Professor Ingrid Woolard of the School of Economics at UCT, who specialises in researching social protection and poverty and inequality, disagrees that grants are not sustainable: “The Treasury has excellent models for forecasting the take-up of grants and the underlying demographic trends are not worrying. Indeed, grants as a percentage of GDP are not increasing so the system is very stable.”
Poverty indicators by province
This data, viewed together with the poverty income data shown in Table 1, enables the number of households living in poverty and the poverty gap of each poor household to be determined.
Jul 28, 2012 · Race and gender play an enormous part in determining poverty’s continuing coursePoverty income by household size (R per month)
In order to calculate the aggregate poverty gap a cross tabulation of household income by household size, municipality and race was drawn from the 2001 census.
Why Can’t We End Poverty in America? - The New York …Since its creation in 1993, the European Union struggles with its reliance on immigration to palliate the labor shortage caused by an aging population; its wish to regulate the migratory flows, especially those originating from Africa; and its intention to promote free circulation of labor within its borders. The numerous immigration–related human rights abuses within the E.U. are due to a lack of a unified European policy regarding immigration and to racism that equates southern immigration with an invasion. In reality, Africans represent in Europe a small percentage of all migrants (11 percent for France in 2004, for instance.) Though even fewer Africans settle in the United States, their ranks have swollen since the 1990s. Making up then 1.8 percent of all migrants, they were 3.7 percent in 2007. A highly educated group, they are generally perceived as law–abiding individuals whose ability to speak English is an asset for integration.
The Colors of Poverty: Why Racial & Ethnic ..
The poverty line varies according to household size, the larger the household the larger the income required to keep its members out of poverty.