Cultural and Ethnic Studies: The Print Revolution

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With the unification of China by the short-lived Ch'in Dynasty (221 to 206 BC), the singular feature in literary matters was what is called the "Burning of the Books." The emperor, Shih Huang Ti, was determined to be an absolutist ruler and opposed to writings on good government such as those in the Classics. In 213, it is believed, he ordered the burning of all texts that appeared threatening to him. Whether the books were actually burned or simply kept from the people is uncertain. The result was the same: It was necessary during the next dynasty to reconstruct the texts of the Classics.

With their stress on simplicity and economy, Chinese calligraphy, painting, and poetry are closely related. In all of them, the artist seeks to express both inner harmony and harmony with the natural surroundings. Chinese poets and painters often have sought inspiration by withdrawing to isolated, mountainous areas, and these landscapes have become conventional themes of Chinese art. Similarly, Chinese architecture has traditionally aimed to convey harmony with society and nature.

The notion of reuse--of materials, as in spolia, or of forms and ideas--has been an integral part of the art historical activity, too. Oleg Grabar's 1973 study of Isalmic art argued that Islamic monuments were the products of a wide range of processes by which the new religion established itself both physically and symbolically. Similarly, scholars of early Christian art have shown how Roman imperial iconography was appropriated by Christian artists through a process of iconographic adaptation. Christ is represented as an emperor, for example, but the secular imperial iconography of costume is made to fit a new religious context where Christ becomes the Pantocrator, the ruler of the universe; in the process, the iconography undergoes changes without completely abolishing the original meanings. It could be argued that, like Molière's Bourgeois Gentilhomme who spoke in prose without knowing it, art historians have studied appropriation without using the term.

Critically assess the evidence on biology, culture and socialization, and gender.

RM: Scandinavian architecture is also really important. Sweden, Norway and Denmark have a close history, common ground, while Finland is a little bit further of them. However, there are clear differences between the architects of the area, more than in other European regions. In Finland, the wood and how to use it is really important, usually in small scale buildings. The company K2S is a good example. About public buildings, the architect is usually chosen by a public competition. Finland is a country with a small population and a small number of architects. That means that the winning entries of a competition are always following the style of the moment, you cannot win a competition if your architecture is very strange.

remembered for his `Wen fu', an essay on literature.

China and the Indian subcontinent have civilizations that date back thousands of years. Except for intermittent conquests, these cultures were relatively uninterrupted in their development, and industrialization arrived late. It is likely, therefore, that folk art in these regions has a history dating back to ancient times. Because of the great period of time involved, however, it is not always possible to distinguish true folk art from the tribal, or primitive, arts that may have persisted for several centuries. By contrast, folk art in Japan can be dated back only to the 17th century.

Part VIII: Consumer Culture & Fashion Studies.

Hua Hsu began contributing to The New Yorker in 2014, and became a staff writer in 2017.

As a field of study, Cultural Studies has always been committed to the necessity of theory and theoretical work. It is not committed to theory for theory's sake; it is rather interested in how theory and theoretical work can be deployed to better understand and transform specific historical conjunctures, contexts, and formations. This Working Group provides a forum where a multiplicity of theories and theoretical studies are explored, examined, and elaborated and where the places, uses, merits, and limits of specific theories in the field are interrogated and engaged.

[tags: contemporary cultural studies]

During the last ten years, the term has become ubiquitous in the discourse of many disciplines, but--despite its manifest usefulness in academic argument--it remains conceptually unstable. The focus of this essay collection on the cultural processes of appropriation offers an opportunity, first, to trace out the recent history of the concept of appropriation as it developed in various fields of study, and then to examine the complexity of "cultural process" as revealed by medieval and early modern examples. Our aim is to demonstrate, as Rhonda Knight observes in the conclusion to her essay, "the importance of placing premodern and modern considerations of cultural appropriation in dialogue with one another."


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In Robert S. Nelson and Richard Shiff's the term merits an essay, written by one of the editors, in which Nelson explains, "my essay on is a deliberate repositioning and thus critique of the previous essay on " that had appeared in the volume In the art history volume, Nelson's "appropriation" essay is placed immediately after the essay on "originality" written by the other editor, Shiff. Thus the two entries form a dialectical diptych, so that the terms engage in a dialogue in which "appropriation" forces a reconsideration of "originality."

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32.1 (2002) 1-15
During the last ten years, the term has become ubiquitous in the discourse of many disciplines, but--despite its manifest usefulness in academic argument--it remains conceptually unstable. The focus of this essay collection on the cultural processes of appropriation offers an opportunity, first, to trace out the recent history of the concept of appropriation as it developed in various fields of study, and then to examine the complexity of "cultural process" as revealed by medieval and early modern examples. Our aim is to demonstrate, as Rhonda Knight observes in the conclusion to her essay, "the importance of placing premodern and modern considerations of cultural appropriation in dialogue with one another." In Robert S. Nelson and Richard Shiff's the term merits an essay, written by one of the editors, in which Nelson explains, "my essay on is a deliberate repositioning and thus critique of the previous essay on " that had appeared in the volume In the art history volume, Nelson's "appropriation" essay is placed immediately after the essay on "originality" written by the other editor, Shiff. Thus the two entries form a dialectical diptych, so that the terms engage in a dialogue in which "appropriation" forces a reconsideration of "originality." Within traditional literary history, the idea of one text appropriating elements from another was referred to as "influence," that is, "relations built on dyads of transmission from one unity (author, work, tradition) to another." Although in this sense "influence" may be traced back as far as written texts, its importance as a concept within literary studies was a phenomenon of the eighteenth and, even more, of the nineteenth centuries. [End Page 1] "Influence-study generally entailed the practice of tracing a text's generic and thematic lineage, especially but not always as evidenced in established canonical works (including myths) from Western literary history," Louis Renza points out in the above-mentioned essay on "influence." Literary influence in such studies "performed a conservative cultural function," reinforcing the canon of "classics." Even as reinterpreted through Harold Bloom's concept of "the anxiety of influence," literary influence-study, Renza argues, tended to reify the ideologies of "author" and "authority," ignoring extraliterary influences on and "culture-specific ideological circumstances" of the work of literature. Because of all these associations, "influence" has been denigrated while "intertextuality" as a more dynamic concept attracted critical attention, especially in the formulations of Kristeva and Barthes, for whom "[a] text . . . is made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into mutual relations of dialogue, parody, and contestation." The notion of reuse--of materials, as in spolia, or of forms and ideas--has been an integral part of the art historical activity, too. Oleg Grabar's 1973 study of Isalmic art argued that Islamic monuments were the products of a wide range of processes by which the new religion established itself both physically and symbolically. Similarly, scholars of early Christian art have shown how Roman imperial iconography was appropriated by Christian artists through a process of iconographic adaptation. Christ is represented as an emperor, for example, but the secular imperial iconography of costume is made to fit a new religious context where Christ becomes the Pantocrator, the ruler of the universe; in the process, the iconography undergoes changes without completely abolishing the original meanings. It could be argued that, like Molière's Bourgeois Gentilhomme who spoke in prose without knowing it, art historians have studied appropriation without using the term. Traditionally, medievalists have focused on discovering the definitive point of origin for the monuments, artifacts, and texts they study. As Claire Sponsler notes in her essay for this volume, "For most of its history, the study of medieval Europe has been a recuperative project preoccupied with...