Wherever the matter for Dialectic is found, it is, of course, highlyimportant that attention should be focused upon the beauty and economyof a fine demonstration or a well-turned argument, lest veneration shouldwholly die. Criticism must not be merely destructive; though at the sametime both teacher and pupils must be ready to detect fallacy, slipshodreasoning, ambiguity, irrelevance, and redundancy, and to pounce upon themlike rats. This is the moment when precis-writing may be usefully undertaken;together with such exercises as the writing of an essay, and the reductionof it, when written, by 25 or 50 percent.
An umpire's decision; the degree to which one may transgress the spiritof a regulation without being trapped by the letter: on such questionsas these, children are born casuists, and their natural propensity onlyneeds to be developed and trained--and especially, brought into an intelligiblerelationship with the events in the grown-up world. The newspapers arefull of good material for such exercises: legal decisions, on the one hand,in cases where the cause at issue is not too abstruse; on the other, fallaciousreasoning and muddleheaded arguments, with which the correspondence columnsof certain papers one could name are abundantly stocked.
There is a delightful passage in Leslie Paul's "The Living Hedge"which tells how a number of small boys enjoyed themselves for days arguingabout an extraordinary shower of rain which had fallen in their town--ashower so localized that it left one half of the main street wet and theother dry. Could one, they argued, properly say that it had rained thatday on or over the town or only in the town? How many drops of water wererequired to constitute rain? And so on. Argument about this led on to ahost of similar problems about rest and motion, sleep and waking, est andnon est, and the infinitesimal division of time. The whole passage is anadmirable example of the spontaneous development of the ratiocinative facultyand the natural and proper thirst of the awakening reason for the definitionof terms and exactness of statement. All events are food for such an appetite.
The national system of Indian education, including both off reservation boarding schools, reservation boarding schools and day schools, continued to expand at the turn of the century. In the Pacific Northwest, Chemawa Indian School became the largest off reservation boarding school and drew pupils from throughout the region and Alaska. Chemawa had originally been located at Forest Grove, Oregon, but was moved to Salem in 1885 after officials determined that the original site lacked adequate agricultural land. By 1920 Chemawa enrolled 903 students from 90 different tribes, nearly a third coming from Alaska.
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Name your belief: If you can’t name it in a sentence or two, your essay might not be about belief. Also, rather than writing a list, consider focusing on one core belief.
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The foremost requirement for assimilation into American society, authorities felt, was mastery of the English language. Commissioner of Indian Affairs T.J. Morgan described English as Such chauvinism did not allow for bilingualism in the boarding schools. Students were prohibited from speaking their native languages and those caught "speaking Indian" were severely punished. Later, many former students regretted that they lost the ability to speak their native language fluently because of the years they spent in boarding school.
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Another important component of the government policy for "civilizing" the Indians was to teach farming techniques. Although few reservations in the Pacific Northwest had either fertile land or a climate conducive to agriculture, nonetheless it was felt that farming was the proper occupation for American citizens. So boys learned how to milk cows, grow vegetables, repair tools, etc. and even had lessons on the various types of plows. ()