"Differentiating instruction means creating multiple paths so that students of different abilities, interest or learning needs experience equally appropriate ways to absorb, use, develop and present concepts as a part of the daily learning process. It allows students to take greater responsibility and ownership for their own learning, and provides opportunities for peer teaching and cooperative learning" (para. 2).
The goals of differentiated instruction and innovative traditionalism are to ensure effective learning for all. Best practice learning adheres to 13 principles. Best practice is student-centered, experiential, holistic, authentic, expressive, reflective, social, collaborative, democratic, cognitive, developmental, constructivist, challenging with choices and students taking responsibility for their learning (Zemelman, Daniels, & Hyde, 1998, as cited in Wilcox & Wojnar, 2000).
A second challenge for success lies in the teacher's ideological perspective, as this latter affects how one teaches. According to David Ferrero (2006), educators are divided by traditionalism and innovation. However, teaching that leads to achievement gains (e.g., via standardized testing) does not mean that educators have to choose between one or the other. There is a concept of "innovative traditionalism" that is student-centered, yet has been shown to improve standardized achievement test scores. This has been accomplished in two Chicago-area high schools by "a combination of test prep, classical content, and collaboratively developed thematic projects grounded in controversy and designed to cultivate student voice and civic engagement" (p. 11). The following table (Ferrero, 2006, p. 11) illustrates the essential differences in education's ideological divide, which can be bridged.
In the countries colonized by the Europeans, they drafted constitutions that resembled that of the European nations. This means that the Europeans made sure that those countries adopted a political system just like the one used by the nations. This shows that they considered their political structure more superior than the ones that were used by their territories before colonization. These political systems have been adapted by various nations since then and there have continuously been modified to suit their cultures. They influenced the democratic mode of government, which they considered more progressive, and this has profoundly influenced the governments of various countries especially in Africa.
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The Europeans introduced their educational systems in various parts of the world since they considered it highly effective. In the countries that they colonized, they abolished the existing educational systems and set up their own system, which they believed, would be more educational. This system has continued to be in use in various countries since a person is only considered learned if he has undergone the system. In these countries, one can only get a white-collar job after going through the system regardless of whether the person can learn through other ways or not.
"Diversity Day" Presentation or Keynote Address -- 3.
The Dunn and Dunn Model includes "environmental, emotional, sociological, physiological, and cognitive processing preferences" (, About Us section).
It is not a nameless occurrence empty of coherent justification.
Knowledge of how students learn best assists teachers in developing lessons that appeal to all learners. However, determining a student's learning "style" cannot be done strictly by observation. Various models and inventories have been designed to determine a learning style. Labeling a "style" poses an additional problem in that a style does not remain fixed over time. Therein lies the main concern of relying on inventories, as their validity and reliability might be in question (Dembo & Howard, 2007), and they differ. The following are among those inventories: