Cornelia Scipionis – (54 – 16 BC)
Roman Imperial patrician
Cornelia Scipionis was the daughter of Publius Cornelius Scipio, consul 35 BC, and his wife Scribonia, later the wife of Octavian. Thus, the emperor Augustus was her stepfather and she was uterine half-sister to Julia Maior. She became the second wife of Paullus Aemilius Lepidus (c66 – c10 BC), consul (34 BC) and censor (22 BC), to whom she bore two sons and a daughter. Their son Lucius Aemilius Pauulus was married to the younger Julia. Her funeral was the occasion of the famous elegy by the poet Propertius, which he wrote at the request of her husband, the last four lines of which read, 'The case for my defence is done. Rise up, my witnesses, who weep for me, while kindly Earth requites my life's deserts. Even heaven has unbarred its gate to virtue. May I be found worthy that my bones be borne to joined by honoured ancestors.'.
Cork, Emily Charlotte de Burgh, Countess of – (1828 – 1912)
British Victorian peeress and diarist
Lady Emily de burgh was the second daughter of Ulick John de Burgh (1802 – 1874) the fourteenth and last Marquess of Clanricarde and his wife Harriet Canning, the only daughter of George Canning and the Viscountess Canning. She was married (1853) to Richard Edmund St Lawrence Boyle (1829 – 1904) Viscount Dungarvon, eldest son and heir of the eighth Earl of Cork, and became Viscountess Dungarvon until 1856 when Lord Dungarvon succeeded as the ninth Earl of Cork, and Emily became the Countess of Cork (1856 – 1904). They attended the coronation of Edward VII and Queen Alexandra at Westminster Abbey (1902). Emily survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Cork (1904 – 1912) and as a widowed peeress she was present at the coronation of George Vand Queen Mary. Lady Cork died (Oct 10, 1912). She left seven children,
Cornell, Katharine – (1893 – 1974)
Katharine Cornell was born in Berlin, Prussia, the daughter of an American physician, who was studying in that city. She took up acting during her school years, and joined the Washington Players (1916 – 1918), before touring with the Jessie Bonstelle Company in Buffalo and Detroit. Cornell made her London stage debut in the role of Jo in Little Women (1919), which performance was well received, and then returned to the USA, where she appeared on Broadway in Nice People (1921). Cornell was married at this time to the director Guthrie McClintic (1893 – 1961), and established hertself as a popular and talented actress in the stageplay of A Bill of Divorcement (1921). Her beauty and talent was much admired by George Bernard Shaw.
For the latter part of the first-half of the twentieth century, she shared the Broadway limelight with Helen Hayes and Lynn Fontanne. She was the author of memoirs, I Wanted To Be an Actress (1939). Katharine Cornell was remembered in the role of Elizabeth in, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, (1931 and 1945), which she included in her travelling repertoire as well as roles in The Enchanted Cottage (1923), Candida (1924) and Romeo and Juliet (1934). She retired after the death of her husband (1961). Katharine Cornell died (June 9, 1974) aged eighty-one, at Vineyard Haven in Martha’s Vineyard, Massachusetts.
Constanza Manuel – (1316 – 1345)
Queen consort of Castile (1325 – 1327)
Infanta Constanza Manuel was the daughter of Infante Juan Manuel of Castile, Duke of Escalona and Pennafiel, and Lord of Villena, and his second wfe Constanza, the daughter of James II, King of Aragon. Constanza was married firstly at Valladolid (1325), whilst a child of nine years, to Alfonso XI the Just (1311 – 1350) King of Castile (1312 - 1350) as his first wife. Alfonso divorced Constanza in 1327, after a change in dynastic policy, and the eleven year old queen returned to her family until she could again be used for the furtherance of royal policy. A decade later she was remarried at Lisbon, Estramadura, in Portugal (1339) to the crown prince, Infante Pedro (1320 – 1367), as his second wife. He succeeded to the throne as King Pedro I of Portugal (1357 – 1367) only after Constanza’s death. The former queen died at Santarem (Nov 13, 1345), aged twenty-nine. She was buried in the Abbey of San Francisco in Santarem.
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Constanza of Aragon (Constance) (3) – (1303 – 1344)
Queen consort of Armenia
Princess Constanza was the daughter of Frederick II, King of Sicily and his wife Eleanor, daughter of Charles II, King of Naples. Constance was married firstly (1317) to Henry II, King of Cyprus, whose death (1324) left her a childless widow. An archive of letters survive, concerning the queen’s possible remarriage, sent between the courts of Sicily and Aragon, but ultimately she returned to the Sicilian court (1326). A plan to marry Constanza to Edward III of England came to nothing, and instead she was remarried (1329) to Leo V, King of Armenia, seven years her junior. The marriage remained unpopular with the Armenian people, and such was the outcry against this pro-Latin marriage, that the king and queen were forced to retreat to the fortress of Sis and appeal for western aid. Leo was eventually killed by his own barons (1341). Two years later (1343), for reasons of state, Queen Constanza was remarried a third time, to John of Lusignan, Prince of Antioch and regent of Cyprus (1329 – 1375), twenty-five years her junior. She remained childless. Queen Constanza died aged forty.
Elizabethan Essays by Patrick Collinson (Hambledon Press, 1994).
Clitherow, Margaret – (1556 – 1586)
English Catholic martyr
Born Margaret Middleton at York, she was the daughter of a candle maker, and became the wife of a widowed butcher, John Clitherow (1571). Though raised a Protestant, Margaret converted to Roman Catholicism (1574), and refused to attend the Anglican Church. Clitherow was fined repeatedly for her intransigence, but was eventually designated a recusant (1576). However, the fact of her pregnancy prevented her from being forced to appear before the council, though after the birth of her child she was imprisoned for over a year. She continued her covert Catholic activities, holding secret masses in her home, and hiding priests from the authorities, and was eventuallt arrested in her home. Clitherow refused to plead, maintaining that only God could judge her, and she was condemned to death. She was executed at York, aged twenty-nine, by being placed underneath an eight hundred pound weight, and slowly crished to death (March 25, 1586). Margaret Clitherow was one of the Forty English martyrs, executed during the reign of Elizabeth I, for hiding priests. She was canonized a saint (1970) by Pope Paul VI.
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Clode, Dame Frances Heather – (1903 – 1994)
British volunteer activist
Emma Frances Heather Marc was born (Aug 12, 1903) and was educated privately under the supervision of a governess. Frances Marc became the wife (1927) of Charles Clode, an officer in the Royal Norfolk regiment, to whom she bore a son. During WW II Mrs Clode volunterred for the war effort and served with the Cambridge WRVS (Women’s Royal Voluntary Service) (1940 – 1945) for which she was appointed MBE by King George VI (1951) and then OBE (Officer of the Order of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth II (1955). She later served as vice-chairman (1967) and then chairman (1971 – 1974) of the WRVS. Her valuable lifetime contribution to voluntary service was again recognized when she was created DBE (Dame Commander of the British Empire) by Queen Elizabeth (1974).
Facts and Accomplishments of Queen Elizabeth - Many ..Clinton, Elizabeth – (1574 – 1630)
Elizabeth Knyvett was the daughter and co-heir of Sir Henry Knyvett, of Charlton, Wiltshire, and his wife Elizabeth Stumpe, the daughter of Sir James Stumpe of Malmesbury, Wiltshire. Elizabeth became the wife (1584) of Thomas Clinton (1568 – 1619), third Earl of Lincoln from 1616, to whom she bore eighteen children. Elizabeth survived her husband as the Dowager Countess of Lincoln (1619 - 1630) and was the mother of Theophilus Clinton (1600 - 1667), fourth Earl of Lincoln, who was married twice and left descendants. Elizabeth Clinton was the author of The Countess of Lincoln’s Nurserie (1622), a treatise concerning child-rearing for upper class women, whom she exhorted to breast feed their own children, rather than let hired nurses perform this task.
Queen Elizabeth 1 essaysElizabeth I was the queen ..Clisby, Harriet Jemima Winifred – (1830 – 1931)
Anglo-Australian physician and feminist
Harriet Clisby was born in London, and immigrated to Australia with her family as a child (1854). At the early age of fifteen she began to train as a journalist (1845) in Adelaide, South Australia, before moving to Melbourne in Victoria (1856), where, with Caroline Dexter, she co-produced the radical political journal, The Interpreter. Clisby then decided to train as a physician, and worked as a nurse at Guy’s Hospital in London, before travelling to American for further study at the New York Medical College for women. There she finished her training as an accredited doctor (1865). Harriet founded the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union in Boston, Massachusetts (1871). With her retirement she went to reside in Geneva, Switzerland, where she founded L’Union des Femmes publication.